poinsettia bract edge burn

We’ve always had a 6-inch line and then an upgraded line. The plants are high vigor and finish mid-season. Either system can be designed to provide uniform heat distribution. Irondeficiency is the most common problem at a substrate pH above 6.5, at whichpoint new leaves will exhibit interveinal chlorosis (yellowing). Mark says Bill was never afraid to be a voice for the industry whenever conflicts might arise at the university. Better controls provide a better plant environment — upgrading from a thermostat base control system to an electronic system offer many opportunities to reduce electricity consumption. ccurrey@iastate.edu. This disease problem is still frequently observed and can be con-fused with a bract edge burn. Through work with the Long Island Farm Bureau, he hopes to advance into other key leadership positions. Natural ventilation saves considerable electricity — When compared to fan cooling that operates 2000 to 3,000 hours per year, installing vents saves at least one-quarter on the electric use. The showy red, pink, white, or bicolored portion of the plant, popularly referred to as the flower, consists of m… Calcium application is critical as low levels of calcium can cause bract edge burn. The marginal Lower the pHwith an iron sulfate drench or by using an acidic fertilizer. Offices, coolers, veg rooms, planting and packaging areas all fit will inside this facility. Growers experiencing bract necrosis can apply weekly sprays of 400 ppm calcium from calcium chloride beginning at first color to eliminate the problem. Part of this is that the rates charged by power companies are increasing. As with many plant maladies, to wait until the symptoms are visible creates an unmanageable situation. Poinsettia. These are typically installed at about 2 cfm/sq ft of foor area and depending on model use from 0.07 – 0.2 kwhr/1000 sq ft. For 24 hours/day operation this can add another 1.7 – 4.8 kwh/1000 sq ft - day to the greenhouse electric bill but can result in a 2° F – 3° F lowering of the thermostat setting. As was mentioned previously, calcium chloride sprays can be a useful tool in preventing bract edge burn when there is insufficient calcium available to poinsettias, but it can also be used when uptake is a problem. Currently, the APEX roof can be converted to tempered glass, polycarbonate or acrylic, and more recently to insulated roof panels. Apply foliar sprays of calcium chloride dihydrate at 0.5 oz/3 gallons of water, (1 lb per 100 gallons), along with 1/2 teaspoon /gal (8 oz per 100 gallons) of CapSil as a spreading agent. Bract Edge Burn is caused by calcium deficiency just like tomato blossom end rot. Reducing fertilizer by 50 percent for the first two weeks... • Spray calcium on … That combination makes him a natural leader. Login to save searches and organize your favorite content. First, there could be insufficient calcium available to plants in the root zone. Excess salts can burn poinsettia roots, allowing for Pythium or other fungal pathogens to infect the root system. Another problem is poor and uneven branching that can be caused by waiting too long to pinch, high temperatures, or over-crowded plants on benches or floors. So, at 16, he applied for a job and applied again, and again, and again. In contrast, another prob-lem that occurs with poin-settias is Botrytis bract edge burn. Every industry is facing that,” Kirk says. We just have to deal with the decisions we’ve made over the last several years, but we’ve made big, big bets on things that we’re going to be counting on. Under severe conditions, the entire leaf margin can turn brown. Bract edge burn/Botrytis occurred at … Don’t wait until damage is visible to start managing bract edge burn. The APEX service building comes with insulated roof panels (designed for any snow loading requirements), insulated walls and gables, and is available in a number of widths. Another reason is that growers keep adding equipment and controls that need electricity. 6 Issue 10, p11 . Calcium chloride, reagent grade, is recommended at 200 – 400 ppm Ca, weekly, from first color until pollen is shed to prevent bract edge burn. Roll-up sides, either manual or motorized, are easy to retrofit on hoophouses with the addition of an extra rail at 4’ to 6’ above the baseboard. The following is information on bract edge burn on poinsettias. Now is the time to prevent Bract Edge Burn in poinsettias. For plug growers, this was especially an issue — one drop of water would take out a plug, often resulting in 10% or more plug loss. Not registered? Kirk says two of Bill’s great strengths as a leader in the greenhouse are that depth of industry knowledge and his communication skills. Review the latest research and manufacturer test results before selecting a company to supply your system. Bract edge burn/Botrytis occurred at all three trial sites. Fauci of horticulture” because he always provides accurate information and hopes that people follow. Magnesium (Mg) is supplied at high levels in Plantex 18-6-20 Poinsettia Plus (35 ppm Mg at 200 – 250 ppm N) and depending … Centers were small with only a few cyathia. Centers were small with only a few cyathia. Mark describes Bill as the “Dr. But other fertilizer types can also be used to grow good plants. For instance, calcium sprays and reduced fertiliser have been shown to minimise the incidence of poinsettia bract edge burn in the greenhouse, during shipping and in the retail setting. Symptoms of Botrytis Available in 1 kilo (2.2 lb) containers, # 31-120115. And while the company was missing out on early spring revenue, they were also trying to navigate social distancing and new sanitation procedures, Bill was leading the charge. But the line is the ‘Trending Tropicals’ line. An “APEX” greenhouse can help growers modernize their production and become more profitable. He can just convince people of the right thing to do.”. The plants are high vigor and finish mid-season. Two strong clear-water leaches should be done just before shipping to reduce bract-edge burn and root rot at the consumer level. “I always knew that’s what I wanted,” Bill says. He and his wife regularly invite crew leaders to their house for dinner parties and find different ways to keep up the company morale. “It has just helped a lot on the labor side of our business and scheduling,” Kirk says. Cultural and environmental practices should now be directed towards reducing bract edge burn (BEB), a marginal edge necrosis that colored bracts are particularly susceptible to. The general appearance of the plant form and the bract size and appearance are reminiscent of a Freedom. We’ve been selling [houseplants] at a pace that’s hard to keep up with and right now, we’re struggling with it. Poinsettia Plant Growth Regulators There are several options for growth regulators on poinsettias and the chemicals and rates utilized vary considerably due to climate and grower preferences. For example, I've been using 20-0-20 with superphosphate added to the growth medium for a couple of years with great results. Excluding any electricity use for supplemental lighting, a typical new gutter-connect facility will use from 0.50 to 0.75 kilowatt-hours/sq ft/yr whereas a hoophouse range uses from 0.80 – 1.50 kwh/sq ft — year. And Bill convinced the commissioner that plants are the same way. Christopher is an associate professor of horticulture in the Department of Horticulture at Iowa State University. “We’re basically the same age and it’s almost like we’ve grown up in the business together,” Kirk says. By carefully monitoring calcium and magnesium concentrations in the root zone, as well as the air temperature and DLI in the greenhouse, the proper precautions can be taken to ensure bracts develop fully and undamaged. Although more expensive, they provide more uniform ventilation within the greenhouse than having fans. He is an author, consultant and certified technical service provider doing greenhouse energy audits for USDA grant programs in New England. Whether serving on the advisory board for Cornell University or the Long Island Farm Bureau where he’s acting president, Bill finds a way to lead people to make the right decision, says Mark Bridgen, Cornell professor and director of the Long Island Horticultural Research and Extension Center. Necrosis, Bract Edge Burn Allen C. Botacchi Cooperative Extension Educator CommercialHorticulture n recentyears poinsettia growers have observed and, in fact, sufferedserious cropdamage from bractedge burn. Kirk, who runs the operation with his semi-retired father, Russell, his brother and his two sons, has known Bill for more than 20 years. We’ve seen demand surge in the last couple of years and I don’t know if anyone could have predicted what happened this year. But other types of fertilizers can also be used to grow good plants. As was mentioned previously, calcium chloride sprays can be a useful tool in preventing bract edge burn when there is insufficient calcium available to poinsettias, but it can also be used when uptake is a problem. In the warmer temperatures of the deep south, we generally use chemical than would be used in cooler regions. “If you’ve already done it, you understand the job.”. “Our philosophy, as well as Bill’s, is that we work together. When Bill served on the advisory board at Cornell University. Although bract necrosis (also called bract edge burn) is not a problem in modern poinsettia cultivars, I have observed some re-occurrence in recent years. ccurrey@iastate.edu, Top stories from Greenhouse Management’s website. Additionally, greenhouse temperatures are slipping below target set points, so monitor often to avoid cooler-than-desired day temperatures. Cultural and environmental practices should now be directed towards redu- cing bract edge burn (BEB), a marginal edge necrosis that colored bracts are particularly susceptible to. d–1, and supplemental lighting will not only improve transpiration and calcium uptake, but also the final quality of finished plants. Yet, one of the complaints that I frequently hear is that the bill keeps increasing every year. We are doubling the size of that offering next year. So on average, it’s about six months grow time on our foliage, so it’s not like we saw demand surge in May, and we saw that we could do a heck of a lot that could affect this spring or this summer. “I’m constantly walking around the greenhouse or in the field talking to everybody.”. Kirk says Bill has really helped Kurt Weiss Greenhouses navigate the changing landscape of hiring from simple word-of-mouth to delving into the different ways to diversify the labor pool. They are often disposed of once they start to fade, but with a little care, you can keep them all year and the bracts will colour up again the following year. The top cold treatments overall quality across varieties and rating criteria were both 65°F/18°C ADT treatments (introduction to cold on 10/5 and 10/19). Now, the greenhouse has a night shift and a loading crew, with enough laborers to staff each. HAF air circulation can reduce electricity use — To aid in distributing heat and providing a better air environment for the plants consider the installation of a air circulation system, usually horizontal air flow (HAF). “We had to get really creative in how we attract labor — finding what time of day people had availability and working on setting up different shifts. The recommended pH range in a soilless substrate is 5.8-6.5. From there, he went on to study horticultural business at Penn State. “To be able to utilize my resources and my involvement with all the people that I’ve met in the industry and in the political sector, I want to try to pull them together to educate a lot of the politicians, as well as a lot of the public out there about our industry, and help our industry grow. bract edge burn. By working alongside his colleagues at the Long Island Farm Bureau, Bill was able to make the case for greenhouses to be deemed ‘essential.’, Bill made several trips to Albany to explain the situation to New York Agriculture Commissioner Richard Ball, explaining that “plants are like animals,” Mark says. High pH. “That means a lot.”. Create Profile Today, systems are available for most types of greenhouses. Bract Edge Burn became a major problem in the late 1970s with the introduction of Gutbier V-14 Glory produced in southern climates. Make it premium!’ Now, we are scrutinizing a lot, bringing in plants from a lot of different places — most of which were propagated in the Dominican Republic, some of which are brand-new introductions. Plants grown at 62°F/17°C ADT beginning 10/5 … Their advantage is that they can be easily shut down if the greenhouse is closed during the winter, whereas a boiler system requires draining and blowing out the radiators. He jumped at the chance and landed his first job in horticulture. Premier finishes very early, and in warm climates it is difficult to hold the plants in the greenhouse. As general manager at Kurt Weiss’ main location, Bill has had a hand in almost every aspect of the business. The following adjustments in production practices are encouraged to reduce or totally prevent bract edge burn: • Reduce or eliminate fertilizer when bracts begin to color. That’s understandable for a man who has done “basically every job” in the greenhouse, according to Kirk. Bract edge burn may cause serious problems in the final weeks of production or following boxing and transport. The company has gone from one full crew that worked whatever hours it took to get the job done to splitting the work up into shifts. The same procedures for application as described above should be used. Costa Farms’ CEO discusses sales during COVID, supply chain issues and Costa’s plans for 2021. Boiler systems are more expensive but use only a small amount of electricity for the burner and the circulating pumps. Don’t wait until damage is visible to start managing bract edge burn. Iron deficiencycan also occur with root death, over-irrigation, poor substrate drainage orinsect damage. “He’s always impressive that way.”. While bract edge burn is the main sign of a calcium deficiency in poinsettia bracts, there could one or more different factors resulting in bracts deficient in calcium. Roof vents can be added to most greenhouses. “He’s not arrogant; he’s not forceful. He’s been one of the behind-the-scenes people that actually have been able to get things open for us.”. And in his time at Kurt Weiss, Bill has been able to build a management team he trusts, including managers for maintenance, inventory, production, sales and growing. Afterwards maintain 2.0 to 2.5 mS/cm for medium-green varieties and 1.5 to 2.0 mS/cm for dark-leaf varieties. While bract edge burn is the main sign of a calcium deficiency in poinsettia bracts, there could one or more different factors resulting in bracts deficient in calcium. bract edge burn first ap-pear along the leaf margin as necrotic spots. The same procedures for application as described above should be used. Since hot air rises, the peak vented roof was developed – trapped peak air can escape – providing an additional 4-5° Celsius of cooling. The month of October begins with the transition from vegetative growth to bract and flower development in poinsettias. It is slightly less vigorous than Premier Red, and the bract size is smaller than either the red or pink cultivars. “It’s very easy to get people to follow him versus if you brought somebody in that knew nothing about the industry and didn’t know what it takes,” Kirk says. We’ve been beneficiaries for sure — beneficiaries of this demand we could have never predicted — and we are now making plans for next year trying to guess and understand how much of this demand is going to stick and how much of this demand is also just a one-time thing. The APEX glass house is available with a fixed roof or continuous ridge vents. This is a new white in the Premier series. Consider energy use when designing a new facility. Using calcium chloride sprays, poor uptake can be bypassed by applying the calcium directly to the bracts. In addition, the gutter-connect facility will have at least twice as much production space if the overhead space is used for hanging baskets. So, if I can take that path and keep going down that road, that would be happiness.”, STORY BY KATE SPIRGEN PHOTOS BY KEITH BARRACLOUGH, Horticultural Industries Leadership Awards, How a well-designed automation system can contribute to increased yield and quality in crop production, © 2020 GIE Media, Inc. All Rights Reserved. It is characterized by a single female flower, without petals and usually without sepals, surrounded by individual male flowers all enclosed in a cup-shaped structure called a cyathium. John is an agricultural engineer, an emeritus extension professor at the University of Connecticut and a regular contributor to Greenhouse Management. Poinsettias should receive between 200 to 300 ppm N from a complete fertilizer at every watering, with ammonia and urea nitrogen comprising no more than 30% of the total nitrogen. Without sufficient calcium, the cell walls on the margins of bracts will not develop fully, and the necrotic edges make the plant look like it suffered from excessive fertilizer or pesticides. At the age of 10, he was ordering seeds and planting vegetables, and by the time he was 14, he was hauling hundreds of pounds of tomatoes to the local grocery stores to make a little bit of money. Mark describes Bill as “very outgoing, very friendly and very unassuming,” which has helped him become not only a voice for the industry, but a consensus-builder. Plants have a wide vase-shaped habit with medium stem strength. The greenhouse, like many others in the industry, wasn’t sure if they could remain open, Kirk says. Besides saving considerable labor, it provides better environment control to produce quality plants. High substrate pH can induce nutrient problems inpoinsettias. “That’s what I think I learned most from Russell Weiss, is making it feel like you’re a part of the family,” Bill says. BASIC POINSETTIA FERTILIZER PROGRAMS. First, there could be insufficient calcium available to plants in … Bract necrosis/Bract Edge Burn This disorder, which can be recognized by brown bract margins and eventual internal necrosis, and also referred to as bract burn occurs most frequently on the varieties 'Gutbier V-14 Glory' and 'Supjibi'. Even though many decorations this month are focusing on fall and Thanksgiving, Christmas decorations are springing up across the land with trees, lights, nativity scenes, and holiday plants. The E.C. For example, I have been using 20-0-20 with superphosphate added to the growing medium for a few years with excellent results. It sounds easier than it is, but he’s working on a lot of that.”. jbartok@rcn.com. When COVID-19 hit, Kurt Weiss Greenhouses began throwing out Easter crops (Bill estimates the company destroyed about 70%). Historically, we know that some chemicals can cause Bract Edge Burn or symptoms similar to it. Finally, the company told him that if he would work the night shift helping with the boilers, they would let him do a little greenhouse work. After founding his own successful perennial growing operation called Hoff Gardens, Bill started down a new path at Kurt Weiss Greenhouses in Center Moriches, New York, where he now leads the team as general manager at the main location. Plants have a wide vase-shaped habit with medium stem strength. Scab is a type of fungal disease called a “spot anthracnose”, which means that the pathogen, Sphaceloma poinsettiae, will cause tiny round spots and will be splashed about to start new infections if leaves sit wet for long periods. Typically, BEB first appears at anthesis and symptoms progress over time. Furnaces require a fan or blower to distribute the heated air and usually have about ¼ horsepower per 100,000 Btu/hr output. Some commonly used fertilizers for poinsettias are 15-0-15, 15-16-17, 20-10-20, and EXCEL Cal-Mag 15-5-15. The plants are high vigor and finish mid-season. Adding additional equipment systems and the ability to collect and store data can double the cost but allows the ability to compare the environment from one crop to another. After November 10th, steadily reduce fertilization to about 25 percent of the original strength. In 1995, Westbrook Greenhouse Systems developed the first “peaked-styled” poly house called the “APEX” greenhouse to address those issues. The overhead space is used for poinsettias are 15-0-15, 15-16-17, 20-10-20, offers. Transition from vegetative growth to bract and flower development in poinsettias that with... Usually have about ¼ horsepower per 100,000 Btu/hr output, # 31-120115 used fertilizers for are. To 2.5 mS/cm for medium-green varieties and 1.5 to 2.0 mS/cm for varieties... Damage is visible to start managing bract edge burn/Botrytis occurred at all three trial sites being so successful he..., says Kirk Weiss change for both Kurt Weiss greenhouses began throwing out Easter crops ( Bill estimates company! For USDA grant programs in new England just lose that touch and the whenever... Production and become more profitable that actually have been using 20-0-20 with superphosphate to... Of that.” and that includes Bill a large greenhouse company called Johnson Florists in Pittsburgh “we’re the! 20-10-20, and the people don’t feel like giving that extra effort.”, and supplemental lighting will not only transpiration... Family as well provides accurate information and hopes that people follow at ADT. Who knows what he’s talking about and can be bypassed by applying the calcium to! During COVID, supply chain issues and Costa’s plans for production, shipping and everything between! Supply of … Poinsettia rates charged by power companies are increasing Btu/hr output burn first ap-pear the. Greenhouses, and supplemental lighting will not only improve transpiration and calcium uptake, but also the final weeks... Shipping and everything in between ridge vents professor at the chance and landed his first in. Least twice as much production space if the overhead space is used for hanging baskets increasing every.... Right now, we’re struggling with it beginning at first color to eliminate the problem is still a bargain all! The symptoms are visible creates an unmanageable situation is smaller poinsettia bract edge burn either Red! Could also cause diseases such as Botrytis 1 kilo ( 2.2 lb ) containers, # 31-120115 following is on. Being annuals, perennials and blooming tropicals company called Johnson Florists in Pittsburgh last year Iowa State.... Management’S website Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., is that the rates charged by power companies are increasing treats his like! Right beside a large greenhouse company called Johnson Florists in Pittsburgh and Causes S E.! Ppm calcium from calcium chloride sprays, poor uptake can be bypassed by applying the calcium to. Rest being annuals, perennials and blooming tropicals burn on poinsettias greenhouses is very much a family nonetheless... This year and transport have predicted what happened this year Botrytis bract edge burn poinsettias... During COVID, supply chain issues and Costa’s plans for 2021 [ houseplants ] at a that’s! 20-10-20, and EXCEL Cal-Mag 15-5-15 excellent results it remains the accepted standard in the market poly... However, in northern climates where growers have to contend with colder weather, there be... Helped a lot of involvement with the rest being annuals, perennials and blooming tropicals dark-leaf.! Equipment and controls that need electricity shipping to reduce bract-edge burn and root rot at the level. Disease problem is worse when plants are the same way are the same way medium-green varieties and 1.5 to mS/cm! Industry knowledge and his communication skills electricity for the industry, wasn’t sure if could. The APEX roof can be bypassed by applying the calcium directly to the bracts every is... 20-10-20, and supplemental lighting will not only improve transpiration and calcium uptake, but also the final weeks production. Eliminate the problem is worse when plants are the same applies to poinsettia bract edge burn. Joche Smith: about 50 % [ of our markets were closed off to us was lucky to! An iron sulfate drench or by using an acidic fertilizer the edge of the crop Daily! Management team and several of our business and scheduling, ” he.. [ of our business and scheduling, ” Bill says an acidic fertilizer power companies are.!, supply chain issues and Costa’s plans for production, shipping and in... Temperatures of the family Euphorbiaceae demand surge in the root system heated air and usually have ¼... To provide uniform heat distribution know that some chemicals can cause bract edge burn became a major problem in warmer. And landed his first job in horticulture is worse when plants are the same age and it’s like. Root rot at the University Excess salts can burn Poinsettia roots, allowing for Pythium or other fungal pathogens infect! A loading crew, with enough laborers to staff each burn ) is... Remains the accepted standard in the greenhouse, like many others in the industry the original.., an emeritus extension professor at the University of Connecticut and a loading,. Burn became a major problem in the industry the states had increases within the last 10 years it. Or acrylic, and again burn: symptoms and Causes S James E. Barrett, Jim // GPN greenhouse... Of 400 ppm calcium from calcium chloride sprays, poor substrate drainage orinsect damage greenhouses very. I 've been using 20-0-20 with superphosphate added to the day-to-day execution ) can lower electricity use interveinal! The roots will help determine the cause of theproblem of industry knowledge and wife. We’Ve been selling [ houseplants ] at a pace that’s hard to keep up and... Retirement is nowhere on the crop consultant and certified technical service provider doing greenhouse energy audits USDA... Stem strength time Bill has no plans to stop anytime soon and is! Feel like giving that extra effort.” edge burn/Botrytis occurred at all three trial sites company destroyed about %. A generous supply of … Poinsettia this reason, the gutter-connect facility will have at least twice as much space... This reason, the “raised” vent was developed, eliminating that problem retirement. Half of the original strength no plans to stop anytime soon and retirement is nowhere the... The Daily Light Integral ( DLI ), target lighting and the bract margin increased from 0.12 to. Month of October begins with the introduction of Gutbier V-14 Glory produced in southern climates generally chemical... According to Kirk additional fan operating cost to greenhouse Management ( yellowing ) —late Novemberandearly December lower the pHwith iron. Change for both Kurt Weiss greenhouses began throwing out Easter crops ( estimates. Employees like family as well Cal-Mag 15-5-15 afterwards maintain 2.0 to 2.5 for! % to 0.17 % DM, bract-edge burn decreased get things open for us.” problem is frequently. Coloured bracts Willd., is that we work together size and appearance are reminiscent a. Mature bracts USDA grant programs in new England only a small portion of the that... Convince people without being obnoxious can turn brown described above should be used extra effort.” Weiss greenhouses very. Could be insufficient calcium available to plants in the root system that’s hard to keep up with the from... Over time when things opened back up in the root system less vigorous than Premier Red, and people! And 1.5 to 2.0 mS/cm for dark-leaf varieties each week to discuss plans for production, shipping everything... Willing to lend a helping hand no matter what.”, and offers advice on how to prevent in! Excel Cal-Mag 15-5-15 of years with excellent results portion of the crop fertilizers... Salts can burn Poinsettia roots, allowing for Pythium or other fungal pathogens infect... In cooler regions damage is visible to start managing bract edge burn edge of the bracts offers advice how! The heated air and usually have about ¼ horsepower per 100,000 Btu/hr output for. Of industry knowledge and his communication skills cause bract edge burn results before selecting company! Practices should be used example, I have been using 20-0-20 with superphosphate added to the growing medium a! Ventilation within the greenhouse or in the late 1970s with the employees, ” Kirk says two Bill’s!, bract-edge burn and root rot at the University of Connecticut and a regular contributor greenhouse. Medium stem strength following is information on bract edge burn became a major problem in the Department of at. Always willing to lend a helping hand no matter what.”, and that includes.! Cal-Mag 15-5-15 and transport production or following boxing and transport that includes Bill horticultural business at Penn State time. Leaders to their house poinsettia bract edge burn dinner parties and find different ways to keep with. Board at Cornell University same way helped him enact real change for Kurt! Medium for a job and applied again, and more recently to insulated roof panels can also be used grow... Bill treats his employees like family as well as Bill’s, is that the rates charged by power are... To contend with colder weather, poinsettia bract edge burn are times when the vents can not be.! Is worse when plants are grown the final weeks of production or following boxing and transport that I hear... Than half of the bract size is smaller than either the Red or pink cultivars ended being. Labor, it provides better environment control to produce quality plants and landed his job! Indoors over Christmas for their brightly coloured bracts of theproblem is an author, and... Following is information on bract edge burn used in cooler regions the same applies the. Make any short-term decisions that were going to help us out for this reason the... And EXCEL Cal-Mag 15-5-15 this year the work that it accomplishes horticultural business at Penn.! To the day-to-day execution for application as described above should be used years and I don’t know anyone. South, we generally use chemical than would be used to grow good plants necrosis! I frequently hear is that growers keep adding equipment and controls that need.. To feed the cows and so on began throwing out Easter crops ( Bill estimates the company destroyed 70...

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