how are mangroves being protected
*“Mangrove,” is one of five films from the “Small Axe” anthology by Steve McQueen (“12 Years a Slave”). Razafindrajery (or “Razeny,” as he’s affectionately called by his neighbors) still takes his boat out every morning to try his luck, but afterward he treks into the mangrove forests to work a second job: beekeeping. And the Taritipan Youth Club continues to do its part. First, to the north, a regional integrated management district named Encanto de los Manglares del Bajo Baudó was declared to protect more than 770,000 acres of beaches, mangroves, and corals. The loss of farmland and the threat of coastal flooding make it more important than ever to restore the mangrove ecosystem, which provides a natural barrier against the sea and rich biodiversity that directly sustains the livelihoods of 200,000 people. And while mangroves cover only 0.1% of Earth’s land surface, they are one of our most powerful tools in the fight against climate change, storing more carbon per hectare than any other type of forest. Mangrove forests protect uplands from storm winds, waves and floods. Like Ana Granja and her sister clam diggers in Sanquianga, the residents of these newly created districts continue to benefit from the mangroves, wetlands, and coastlines that have sustained their people for generations. With more than 17,000 islands, Indonesia has the second-longest coastline in the world—behind only Canada. Protected by the Mai Po Nature Reserve, this mangrove forest and the surrounding mudflats has been designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention since 1995. The 1996 Mangrove Trimming and Preservation Act defines a mangrove as any specimen of the species Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove), Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) or Avicennia germinans (black mangrove). careful not to accidentally break or trample mangroves when we enter mangrove forests, or catch resources such as crabs, shrimps or fish. Around 2.5 million trees are protected through Mikoko Pamjoa along with a second program it inspired called Vanga Blue Forest. Candy Feller is an insect and plant ecologist studying the effects of extra nutrients from fertilizer run-off on mangrove systems over time. The struggle to save mangroves like these in Ecuador is a global challenge that no single government or organization can tackle alone. They maintain water quality and clarity, filtering pollutants and trapping sediments originating from land. acres of mangrove forests are being protected through conservation concessions in northwest Mexico. The company’s ASC certification already appears to be good for business. Tweet This For the sake of Tun Mustapha—and the many communities that depend on its natural resources—WWF is working to extend the park’s boundaries to include the surrounding mangroves. The budding conservationists are trained to patrol and monitor the nearby Kudat and Marudu Bay Mangrove Forest Reserve, one of several sites WWF uses to demonstrate the benefits that marine protected areas offer local communities. MMA since 2006 to achieve this certification. Achieving that goal will depend on work in places like Guayaquil, where Spurrier, WWF’s senior director for oceans, is meeting with the local mud crab association. It is one of approximately 50 associations that have signed agreements with the Ecuadorian government to protect the mangroves. By acting now to save these vulnerable habitats, we can build a future where both mangroves and mankind thrive. Mangrove forests are important because they: protect coastlines against erosive wave action and strong coastal winds, and serve as natural barriers against tsunamis and torrential storms. Mangroves also provide invaluable green economy services for humans. Diverting water can harm mangroves by preventing their seeds from being dispersed via seawater, and it can kill the trees by cutting off freshwater supplies. In places like this stretch of Ecuadorian coast near the city of Guayaquil, losing the mangroves would portend the loss of the mud crabs—the primary source of income for some local fishing communities—and have a severe impact on surrounding ecosystems as well. Mangroves are very important as they provide resources (such as crabs, shrimp, fish and Mangroves protect coral reefs from sedimentation, sequester massive amounts of carbon to combat climate change, adapt to rising sea levels, serve as nurseries in a vital food source for marine life while providing critical habitat for endangered species. Here are some highlights. MMA’s supply chain fully support their efforts on behalf of environmental sustainability. But these otherworldly forests on stilts are in fact one of Earth’s most critical ecosystems, buffering coasts from storm surges, serving as vital habitat for untold marine species, and providing food and livelihoods for local communities. View our inclusive approach to conservation. Traditional communities within both areas will still be permitted to sustainably harvest natural resources such as the piangua. Despite this hardiness, mangroves cannot withstand cold temperatures and can only be found in These water diversions alter the natural flow of water that maintains the health of surrounding mangroves as well as ecosystems farther inland and offshore. Mangroves and the wider blue economy. Fifty percent of the world’s mangroves have disappeared in the past half-century, victims of rising sea levels; oil spills and other pollution; demand for timber; and clearing to make way for shrimp and crab fishing, coastal infrastructure, and urban expansion. 325 miles of shoreline near Bahia Magdalena's mangroves protected … Recent destruction of firefly habitats initiated the creation of Congregating Firefly Zones (CFZs) in an effort to protect these unique and beautiful insects. Donations are tax-deductible as allowed by law. Mangrove forests cover just 0.5 percent of the world's coasts but account for an estimated 10-15 percent of … The amount of protection afforded by mangroves depends upon the width of the forest. Section 4. And a little over a decade ago, they were nearly lost forever. Mangroves provide food and habitat for a diverse range of species, including the proboscis monkey. To conserve mangroves should involve of the locals. prevent salt water from intruding into rivers. And with rising ocean temperatures have come shifting weather patterns that have made fishing on the open sea increasingly difficult. The United Nations Environment Program reported in 2014 that mangroves are being … Coastal wetlands protect the shoreline from erosion by acting as a buffer against wave action as in the case of coastal mangroves. There are also winners from five other categories highlighting … Places where mangroves have been cut down for shrimp farms are far more vulnerable to destructive cyclones and tidal waves. Mangroves also help prevent erosion by stabilizing sediments with their tangled root systems. Today, river water is overused and diverted upstream, reducing sediment and causing the delta to sink—and allowing the salty sea to progress inland and swallow up areas that once yielded plentiful crops. Then, a national integrated management district called Cabo Manglares, Bajo Mira y Frontera was created, ensuring the conservation of roughly 470,000 acres of coastal wetlands (including deep water ecosystems and more than 16,000 acres of mangroves) and the connectivity of coastal ecosystems between Colombia and neighboring Ecuador. In 2010, Dablo’s tireless work earned him WWF-Pakistan’s prestigious annual Syed Asad Ali Conservation Award. A Brazilian court blocked government's move to revoke key regulations protecting the country's tropical mangroves after the move was fiercely criticized by environmental and climate groups. Endangered Species Associated with Mangroves The IUCN Red List of Endangered Species lists most flora and fauna into seven categories ranging from “Least Concern” to “Extinct”. Preserving mangroves may be one in a portfolio of strategies to help corals survive the effects of climate change. Mangrove forests are considered hardy plants given their ability to survive in high saline waters and low-oxygen soils. Between 1990 and 2010, Madagascar lost 21% of its mangroves. Foreign buyers and other key players throughout PT. But mangroves are at risk of vanishing forever. Mangroves protect shorelines from erosion. The use of mangroves for fuelwood and fodder for livestock is one of the many reasons their coverage has shrunk in recent decades. Smithsonian Is Working to Protect Endangered Mangroves Around the World. In Aceh, Indonesia, students join with fishers to plant new mangroves. In 2017, two new coastal conservation areas were created in the Colombian Pacific. With support from WWF-Madagascar and other organizations, Razeny and 10 other beekeepers have been trained to harvest honey from hives in the mangroves of the Tsiribihina Delta. A protracted drought in Madagascar has forced inland communities to the coast, putting more strain on marine life already hit hard by overfishing and the decline of the coral reefs. For $10/month, get World Wildlife in print, 1250 24th Street, N.W. World Wildlife Fund Inc. is a nonprofit, tax-exempt charitable organization (tax ID number 52-1693387) under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Given their natural ecological roles and their various human beneficial products, mangroves are a powerhouse resource that needs to be protected and managed. These demonstration sites, coupled with technical support and public awareness efforts led by WWF-Malaysia, Sabah Parks, and partners, helped pave the way for the creation of Tun Mustapha Park in 2016. Altogether, WWF has partnered with fishers in Pakistan to rehabilitate 21,498 acres of mangrove forest and has worked with the government to plant an additional 1.4 million mangrove trees. This was corroborated by V. Selvam, former lead researcher on mangroves at the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation (), Chennai.“I used to live in … 26.7 million tons of carbon sequestered through WILDCOAST’s mangrove conservation efforts. Date Initiated: 1990. This is just the beginning. The project’s secretary, Harith Suleiman, says that with climate change causing more extreme weather events, not having the protection of the mangroves meant the village was at constant risk of flooding. In August 2017, PT. Nearly half of Indonesia’s mangroves have been cleared in the past three decades, many to make way for shrimp farms. And now, with technical support from WWF, one of the country’s most influential shrimp processing companies, PT. Mangrove cover here has decreased significantly as a result of pollution, wood harvesting for fuel and camel fodder, and a lack of freshwater feeding into the delta. The seedlings he planted a decade ago are now six feet high and cover more than 1,200 acres. The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. Ecuador, have created a program that gives mangrove concessions to the communes or associations who live and/or work in the mangroves … With WWF-Colombia and other organizations, the Colombian government is working to effectively manage and expand the country’s system of protected areas like this one. What is a mangrove? His father flew to Lahore to accept the award on his behalf—the first Tippan villager ever to travel by plane—and returned home beaming proudly and eager to share tales of the big city. By acting now to save these vulnerable habitats, we can build a future where both mangroves and mankind thrive. WWF is working with local communities along the coast to reverse that trend. Recognizing the multiple values of mangroves • Mangroves are among the most valuable ecosystems in the world. MMA), is leading the way toward more improvements. Smithsonian science is laying the groundwork for mangrove conservation by documenting the critical services that mangroves provide and by examining how human activities are affecting the functioning of these ecosystems. Outfitted with a rain hat, rubber boots, and gloves, Ana Granja traipses through the mud alongside other women from her community, singing as they scour a mangrove swamp for small, black clams called piangua. That’s why WWF recently joined with Conservation International, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, The Nature Conservancy, and Wetlands International to establish the Global Mangrove Alliance. For the past eight years, WWF-Malaysia has been working with the Taritipan Youth Club in Kota Marudu to raise awareness of the importance of mangroves. As a life support system for marine species, mangroves are a critical component of the marine and coastal environment that contributes significantly to food security. Photo: IUCN. Valuable mangrove forests that protect coastlines, sustain sealife and help slow climate change are being wrecked by the spread of shrimp and fish farms, a … A very narrow fringe of mangroves offers limited protection, while a wide fringe can considerably reduce wave and flood damage to landward areas by enabling overflowing water to be absorbed into the expanse of forest. Blue carbon ecosystems (mangroves, sea grasses and salt marshes) can be up to 10 times more efficient than terrestrial ecosystems at absorbing and storing carbon long term, making them a critical solution in the fight against climate change. It is part of a Hong Kong success story, albeit a limited one. WWF has been working with PT. MMA became the first shrimp processor in Indonesia to register its supplier farms (traditional small-scale shrimp farming) and receive the rigorous Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification. 1. Back in 2004, satellite images of the delta showed a once-lush landscape stripped bare, decimated by years of converting forest to rice paddies and cutting wood for building materials, charcoal, and firewood. Despite the benefits worth an estimated US$33-57,000 per hectare, mangroves are being degraded, lost, or poorly restored at an alarming rate (UNEP, 2014). This year, the club wants to establish a new conservation area inside the Kudat and Marudu forest reserve, in the hopes that better management of the mangrove forests will help boost the local economy. Locals like Granja know the value of this vulnerable ecosystem. Back when freshwater was abundant, local farmers grew red rice, bananas, coconuts, and melons to sell in local and international markets. He plucks a cord from his belt to deftly bind the crab, and then he’s off again—a member of the local mud crab association, prowling the mangroves for his quarry. For René Razafindrajery, a fisherman and father of five who lives on Madagascar’s west coast, the changing climate has brought a change in career. At the same time mangroves reduce loss of property and vulnerability of local communities. Office of International Relations 1100 Jefferson Dr. SWWashington, DC 20013, 35% of mangroves have disappeared since the mid-1980s, 30+ sites worldwide where Smithsonian monitors mangrove ecosystems, Working with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival (SSC) Mangrove Specialist Group, Smithsonian is sharing mangrove knowledge and developing conservation plans, Key findings show that changes in nutrient availability in coastal ecosystems can change the biodiversity of plants living there, which can diminish the ability of the ecosystem to store carbon and provide other critical services, By comparing data from more than 22 sites around the world, researchers are able to provide powerful hypotheses about how climate change is affecting mangroves and suggest ways to mitigate these effects and protect mangrove ecosystems, Subscribe to Smithsonian Global on YouTube. Through collaboration with international governments and other conservation organizations, Smithsonian research is working to ensure that mangroves continue to support diverse forms of coastal life in years to come. As WWF’S Lauren Spurrier watches, her Ecuadorian guide kneels and plunges his arm into a deep hole. Smithsonian is a global organization actively involved in research and conservation. Every day, Ayub Dablo emerges from his thatched hut in Tippan village in the Indus River Delta of Pakistan to survey the thick jungle of mangrove trees that stands before his home. In 2007, WWF joined with passionate locals and partner organizations to restore the forest, planting 2 million mangroves over the last decade. These coastal forests provide vital services to humans and wildlife, but mangroves are threatened throughout the world and disappearing at an alarming rate. But it’s not all white sand beaches and lush forests; man-made earthen ponds brimming with shrimp also dot Indonesia’s shores, many of them in vast grids that sprawl for millions of acres. Smithsonian science is laying the groundwork for mangrove conservation by documenting the critical services that mangroves provide and by examining how human activities are affecting the functioning of these ecosystems. And other farmers are following in their footsteps—an auspicious sign for the long-term health and well-being of local communities and mangrove forests. Around 500 mangroves in Volusia County were cut well below the height mandated by state guidelines, forcing the state to get involved to figure out how and why it happened. (ii) Flood Protection Wetlands reduce the effect of floods on coastal areas by acting as a sponge and slowing down flood waters as in the case of coastal marshlands. Encompassing more than 2.2 million acres of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrasses, and productive fishing grounds, Tun Mustapha is Malaysia’s largest marine protected area. Partner with us to preserve our natural and cultural heritage. Mangroves around the world are vanishing at an alarming rate. Washington, DC 20037. Mangroves look almost alien, with their barnacle-covered roots arching out of the ground to suspend the trees above dense mud and water. Mangroves reinforce shorelines and store huge quantities of carbon, so protecting them is an effective climate strategy. Mangroves have (carbon) hoarding issues. Victor Hugo Luja Molina won the competition with an image titled Once Again Being a Mother, which shows a female jaguar in an intimate moment with her cub in a mangrove forest in Mexico.. Nearly 100,000 acres of mangroves remain outside the park’s borders. The mangrove trees often glow as though strung with Christmas tree lights. Last year, the Pakistan Navy launched an effort to plant a million more. The piangua found here in Sanquianga National Park, a 197,000-acre protected area that includes 105,700 acres of mangroves, are a crucial source of income for more than 125 communities along Colombia’s Pacific coast. These coastal forests provide vital services to humans and wildlife, but mangroves are threatened throughout the world and disappearing at an alarming rate. The Mangrove Act does not distinguish between living and dead mangroves, so the same trimming regulations apply to each. retain, concentrate and recycle nutrients and remove toxicants through a natural filtering process. A moment later, he’s back on his feet with a red mud crab in his hand, its 10 spindly legs kicking in protest. For more than two decades, Smithsonian Scientists have studying the effects of human development, industry, climate change, and aquaculture on these tropical coastal ecosystems. It is one of approximately 50 associations that have signed agreements with the Ecuadorian government to protect the mangroves. Mangroves are essential to maintaining water quality. to be protected and restored, allowing wise use where possible. Mangroves protect shorelines from damaging storm and hurricane winds, waves, and floods. Together, the organizations seek to partner with stakeholders and governments around the world to increase mangrove habitat by 20% by 2030. • Mangroves, and their coastal risk reduction function, can recover in most places where appropriate ecological and social conditions are present or restored. Mangrove roots filter as much as 90% of salt from seawater, enabling them to thrive in conditions where other plants would perish. Together, they have rehabilitated nearly 50 acres of mangroves in a reservation park, and more than 16 acres of mangroves around the shrimp farms. Mustika Minanusa Aurora (PT. We can also protect mangroves by keeping the mangrove forests and surrounding waterways free of pollution and chemicals. The Global Mangrove Alliance hopes to turn the tide. Mangroves protect coastlines against storms, rising seas and tsunamis. The project will protect all 21,782 acres (8,815 hectares) of Sri Lanka’s existing mangrove forests by providing alternative job training and microloans to approximately 12,000 impoverished women who live in 1,500 small communities adjacent to the nation’s mangrove forests. That’s why WWF-Indonesia is dedicated to helping the nation’s shrimp industry adopt a more environmentally responsible approach. The thickets of mangroves that buttress tidal mudflats also provide a buffer zone that protects the land from wind and wave damage. With their dense network of roots and … Today, the forest is teeming with life, and the distinct calls of king birds, whistling ducks, and birds of paradise once again fill the air. A father of four himself, Dablo is passionate about WWF’s mission to save the mangroves of the Indus River Delta. He gave the example of coastlines that had “extensive, full" mangroves resulting in inland areas being protected significantly from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Mangrove Action Project recently announced the winners of its 2020 Mangrove Photography Awards. WWF has helped create better management practices for small-scale shrimp farms in Indonesia. Royal Bengal Tiger As spawning and nursery grounds for freshwater, brackish, and marine wildlife, these mangrove forests play a crucial role in sustaining the park’s rich diversity. These mangroves provide vital ecosystem services, serve as tourism and educational spots, and support the growth of mud crab. Water. This shift in occupations is an inspiring example of climate adaptation, but the long-term success of Razeny and his neighbors depends on the survival of the mangroves.