nursing ethics journal
The immediate questions that arise in this dilemma are, ‘should the nurse deceive Mr. Logan?’ ‘is this an appropriate use of placebo?’, ‘how should Mr. Logan participate in his own pain management plan?’, and ‘how should the nurse advocate for the patient?’ To answer these questions, the Code and other resources provide guidance. Filerman, A.E. Nurse involvement in biomedical ethics. Recognizing that nursing practice extends from horizon to horizon—from the bedside to the classroom, from the executive suite to the laboratory bench—the 2015 Code continues to provide all nurses with a firm foundation for ethical practice, Beth Epstein, PhD, RN American Medical Association. Nursing Ethics takes a practical approach to this complex subject and relates each topic to the working environment. The international Editorial Board ensures the selection of a wide range of high quality articles of global significance. Citation: Peter, E., (January 31, 2018) "Overview and Summary: Ethics in Healthcare: Nurses Respond" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. Elizabeth Peter, PhD, RN In the first article, “Ethical Awareness: What It Is and Why It Matters” Aimee Milliken, like Komesaroff (1995), describes how ethical awareness entails the recognition that all nursing actions, including routine ones, can have an impact on patients. Nurse-physician perspectives on the care of dying patients in intensive care units: Collaboration, moral distress, and ethical climate. Finally, there was a fundamental shift in language in the 1968 revision. ...the Code has been revised over time to introduce obligations to advance the profession and build and maintain a healthy work environment. Ethical dimensions in the health professions. Piper, L. (2011). Substance Use Disorders and Related Concerns, The 200th Birthday of Florence Nightingale, Addressing Social Determinants of Health: Progress and Opportunities, Translational Research: From Knowledge to Practice, Ethical Awareness: What It Is and Why It Matters, Ethics Education in Nursing: Instruction for Future Generations of Nurses, Enhancing Nurse Moral Agency: The Leadership Promise of Doctor of Nursing Practice Preparation, Identifying and Addressing Ethical Issues with Use of Electronic Health Records, Ethical Nursing Care Versus Cost Containment: Considerations to Enhance RN Practice, http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000441705. Developing abilities to navigate through the grey zones in complex environments: Nurses question reasons for applying to a clinical ethics residency for nurses. (1995). More than 400 nurses volunteered; from these 15 were selected to serve on the Code Steering Committee (SC). Purtilo, R. (2005). Critical Care Medicine 35: 422-429. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality of Health Care in America (2001). The code for professional nurses. In May 2014, the edited draft was posted for public comment. Each day, situations arise for nurses that require both decision and action, and may include ethical dilemmas. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(2): 117-125. doi:10.1111/jnu.12115, © 2015 OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing New issues had important ethical implications to address in the Code. National Association of Social Workers. Nursing Code of Ethics. This scenario demonstrates the benefit of the Code as a useful tool for evaluation and action. Nursing’s ethics. 1, Overview and Summary. For many professions, this is done with a code of ethics. Martha Turner PhD, RN-BC. That is, the saline injection may induce some analgesic effect even though it is not a pain medication. (2010). ANA: Washington, DC. However, in this case, there is an inkling of doubt because of the possibility of a placebo effect. Managerial ethics in healthcare: A new perspective. In their article, “Identifying and Addressing Ethical Issues with Use of Electronic Health Records,” McBride, Tietze, Robichaux, Stokes, and Weber contend that the use of EHRs can result in untended consequences that can lead to patient safety concerns and moral distress when they involve clinical decision support (CDS). Walker, M.U. About this journal. Although in 1896, one of the initial goals of the newly established American Nurses Association was to write a code of ethics, urgent issues such as nurse registration, the welfare of nurses, and accreditation processes for nursing schools took precedence (Fowler, 1997). Code of ethics with interpretive statements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ethics is not just constituted by those issues that garner public attention (i.e., euthanasia). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Moral dilemmas in community health care: Cases and commentaries. More recent literature about organizational ethics and culture has explored the hospital ethical climate and the culture of quality and safety, as well as shifts in financial concerns that influence professional practice (Austin, 2007; Engelhard, 2014; Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2001; Mills, 2014; Peter, Macfarlane, & O’Brien-Pallas, 2004). The nine provisions address the general, enduring obligations of nurses and rarely require major revision. The preface and afterword required revision for clarity to help the reader by providing a framework for the Code. Nursing Ethics takes a practical approach to this complex subject and relates each topic to the working environment. These documents guide practice decisions and set a standard of practice behavior expected of every member of a given profession. The Code can provide some guidance, but some weighing and balancing of the different provisions is necessary. Whitehead, P.B., Herbertson, R.K., Hamric, A.B., Epstein, E.G. Social Science & Medicine, 65(8): 1708-1719. Historically, nursing ethics were an extension of medical ethics. "The Third Reich, Nursing, and AJN" appears in the same issue and led me to ponder nursing ethics in regard to these topics. (2010). Patton, M. Q. Throughout the process of writing and editing, a Code scholar with several publications on the nursing Code of Ethics (Fowler, 1985; 1992; 1997; 2010; & 2015) and participation experience in the 2001 code revision simultaneously reviewed and edited the drafts. Hobbes, T. 1588-1679 (1950). Moral distress among healthcare professionals: Report of an institution-wide survey. Managing these challenges well contributes to safe, compassionate, quality care. & O’Brien-Pallas, L.L. However, professional codes of ethics provide support and direction about behavior(s). Fowler, M. (1997). Ethics education is an essential element in the development and sustenance of nurses’ moral agency. By: Kathleen Gaines MSN, BA, RN, CBC. 4th ed. They conclude by recommending that nurses, in partnership with nurse scholars, learn to use their voice effectively. American Association of Critical Care Nurses. You are. (2007). Consider an ethics consult service. Nurses in every role and every setting were invited to, and did, participate in the process. Citation: Peter, E., (January 31, 2018) "Overview and Summary: Ethics in Healthcare: Nurses Respond" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. Nursing Ethics takes a practical approach to this complex subject and relates each topic to the working environment. Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. There is no doubt that minority nurses experience slights which are related to race from unconscious bias which permeates our culture. For example, the relation of the nurse to the patient involved “bringing all of the knowledge, skill, and devotion” to the work (ANA, 1926, p. 600). American Nurses Association. Often, other resources are needed to grasp the full complexity of an ethical dilemma. To consider ethical issues, some level of guidance about how to do so should be in place. It often requires a team of individuals to fully understand and resolve difficult ethical problems. You are pointing out a very important and interesting effect of our âblindednessâ to racial injustices toward our minority nurse colleagues. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4): 385-295. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2011.01422.x. Links were recommended to provide access to various ANA position statements; Scopes and Standards of Practice; and the Social Policy Statement (. (1926). In the 1600s, British philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1651/1950) posited that, if left solely to ourselves, we would be at constant war, “every man against every man (p. 103).” To counteract this for our own survival, notes Hobbes, we require strong leadership and an accepted social contract to guide conduct (Hobbes, 1651/1950). Diverse skills, such as those related to advocacy, speaking up, providing support, and communication, are all necessary for moral competence within the social space of nursing work and are learned and reproduced within these interpersonal contexts (Peter, Simmonds, & Mohammed, 2015; Walker, 1998). The revision process led to several significant changes in the 2015 Code of Ethics. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association Publishing. DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol20No02Man04 Key words: Ethics, code of ethics, nursing, professionTo practice competently and with integrity, today's nurses must have in place several key elements that guide the profession... Professional nursing is defined as âthe protection, promotion, and optimization of health aâ¦ Retrieved from www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/opinion8083.page. Mills, A.E. Common morality: Deciding what to do. Fowler, M. Everyday ethics: Ethical issues and stress in nursing practice. Troubled bodies: Critical perspectives on postmodernism, medical ethics, and the body. ANA Publishing: Silver Spring, MD. It establishes an ethical standard that is non-negotiable in all roles and in all settings. A new introduction now clarifies terms such as “patient,” “client,” and “consumer,” “moral,” “ethical,” and the differences between “must,” “ought,” and “should.” A glossary of terms was added and a list of online resources and other support documents will be posted on the ANA website. Peter, E. (2011). Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 43(2), 11-17. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). The Code Review Working Group was appointed to collect public comment regarding the need for revision. A qualitative content analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Patton, 2002) of the 2783 public comment responses was conducted. After review of the Code and a search of the literature, Mr. Logan’s nurse understands more fully that deceiving him is wrong because it is disrespectful of the patient, diminishes his autonomy, and threatens the nurse’s own integrity. Journal of Advanced Nursing 66(11): 2510-2519. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05425.x. Most noteworthy, this article emphasizes the necessity of self-care and compassion to maintain the well-being, and ultimately the moral agency, of members of a moral community. Consider the three levels of ethical engagement when reviewing a dilemma, specifically the broad, societal level of biomedical ethics where questions affecting health and healthcare are generated (e.g., stem cell research, healthcare for undocumented immigrants); the organizational level (e.g., hospital system obligations to its employees, hierarchical structures, bed allocation); and the clinical level (e.g., withdrawal of aggressive treatment, surrogate decision making). Beauchamp, T.L. They argue that the business model that has been adopted in healthcare silences nurses from voicing their concerns and expressing what they think is the ethical way to care for patients, which can create stress and conflict among nurses. A suggested code. The American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics prohibits use of placebo except when the patient is fully informed (AMA, 2007). Nursing Ethics adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference When the next call is made, take time to offer your suggestions to ensure the Code continues to remain a relevant resource for practice. American Nurses Association. Pain Management Nursing, 12(4): 225-229. The following recommendations can be helpful at any level of practice: 2015 ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, ANA Position Statements on Ethics and Human Rights, Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Today’s Code (ANA, 2015b) is a result of the ANA’s long-standing commitment to support nurses in their daily life and practice. Peter, E.H., Macfarlane, A.V. This article will discuss ethics in society, professions, and nursing and illustrate how a professional code of ethics can guide nursing practice in a variety of settings. Beth Epstein, PhD, RN 20, No. & Childress, J.F. As a nurse myself, I knew the drill but I was very uncomfortable. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. The use of technology made this recent revision process more effective and efficient than in previous times. The ethics of everyday practice: Healthcare environments as moral communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Whether or not to advocate is not in doubt (Provision 3), but just how to do that is a bit more difficult. (1998). The ethical leadership challenge: Creating a culture of patient and family-centered care in the hospital setting. American Nurses Association. In Ethical dilemmas in contemporary nursing practice (G.B. New York: Dutton. Selected potentially helpful online resources are listed in Table 2. Researchers have found that poor ethical climates were correlated with higher levels of moral distress, poorer job satisfaction, and increased likelihood of intent to leave a position (Hamric & Blackhall, 2001; Whitehead, Herbertson, Hamric, Epstein & Fisher, 2015; Pauly, Varcoe, Storch & Newton, 2009; Ulrich et al., 2007). The process for the most recent revision began with an initial review by the ANA Ethics Advisory board of the current Code provisions and interpretive statements, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) code (ICN, 2012), and the codes of other health professions such as pharmacy, occupational therapy, social work, medicine, physical therapy, and public health. (2004). For example, the first three provisions still describe the most fundamental values and commitments of the nurse; the next three address boundaries of duty and loyalty, and the last three address aspects of duties beyond individual patient encounters. In A.J.Davis, M.A. As in the past, the current Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements (ANA, 2015b) forms a central foundation for our profession to guide nurses in their decisions and conduct. The obligations of the nurse changed from generalized responsibilities to “conserve life, alleviate suffering and promote health” (ANA, 1960, p 1287) to a deeper, more duty-based obligation to “respect the dignity of man, unrestricted by considerations of nationality, race, creed, color, or status” and to “safeguard the individual’s right to privacy” (ANA, 1968, p. 2582). Nurses and other healthcare professionals are not expected to be able to resolve complex ethical problems alone, using only a code of ethics. Also, there is a functional difference between care and healing. You are. This development of competency typically goes beyond what is can be learned in classrooms, but can be learned in clinical practice particularly with good mentorship and support. Requesting or connecting patients to additional resources could improve both the quantity and quality of their lives, and standing up for patients during team meetings when they are stereotyped or misunderstood can result in behavior change. For health professionals in particular, Purtilo writes, “citizens in general are not morally required to help another in need. & Zimbelman, J.C. (2005). The formulaic alerts of CDS can be in conflict with the judgment of clinical teams, requiring nurses and others to override these alerts. 4th Ed. Moreover, nurses who offer support to team members when they are struggling with ethical issues can create a ‘moral space’ so that reflection and shared decision-making about moral issues occurs (Walker, 2003). Examples of such queries may include discussion about whether access to healthcare is a right or a privilege; how to protect research participants from harm; the most fair method for resource distribution during an Ebola crisis; or the inappropriateness of punitive measures against pregnant women who use drugs and alcohol. Arnstein, P., Broglio, K., Wuhrman, E. & Kean, M.B. Nursing priorities, actions, and regrets for ethical situations in clinical practice. Given the importance of the Code to the profession on so many levels, revisions continue on a regular basis. The revision process led to several significant changes in the 2015 Code of Ethics (ANA, 2015b). The historical influence on ethics might begin by â¦ This article, the first in a series of articles relating to ethics and nursing, offers an introduction to ethics, primarily focusing on their application in clinical nursing practice. The importance of the interpersonal context for nurses’ moral agency is highlighted in Wocial’s article, “In Search of a Moral Community.” She describes a moral community as a place where members are supported in reflecting and deliberating about practice. Also, there is some concern that while an opioid may provide short-term benefit, it could cause harm in the longer term by causing re-addiction. A final version of the 2015 Code was approved by the ANA Board of Directors in November 2014 and was published on NursingWorld in January 2015. Are nurses refusing to participate in these surgical procedures, which can be deemed unethical because of the risk to both mother and infant? Review of the 2001 Code (ANA, 2001) revealed several areas requiring updates in language and content. Finally, the article provides implications for practicing nurses to assure that this document is a dynamic, useful resource in a variety of healthcare settings. The question now becomes, how should the nurse best advocate for this patient? 20, No. Everyday ethics issues in the outpatient clinical practice of pediatric residents. Toward interventions to address moral distress: Navigating structure and agency. (2003). Use of placebos in pain management. Hamric, A.B. Beth Epstein, PhD, RN is an Associate Professor of Nursing at the University of Virginia (UVA) School of Nursing and is also a member of the faculty of the Center for Bioethics and Humanities at the UVA School of Medicine in Charlottesville, VA. She attended the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY for her BS in Biochemistry and then UVA for her MS in Pharmacology, BSN, and PhD in Nursing. Registered nurses’ perceptions of moral distress and ethical climate. [Context Link] 11. American Journal of Nursing, 33(3), 266, Fassler, M., Meissner, K., Schneider, A., Linde, K. (2010). In his description of microethics in medicine, Komesaroff (1995) describes how “ethics is what happens in every interaction between every doctor and every patient” (p. 68). Life and death decisions are a part of nursing, and ethics are therefore fundamental to the integrity of the nursing profession. Citation: Epstein, B., Turner, M., (May 31, 2015) \"The Nursing Code of Ethics: Its Value, Its History\" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. (2012). (1985). Beth teaches ethics in the School of Nursing and lectures in the Center for Bioethics and Humanities. Nursing is concerned with health, whereas medicine focuses on cure. Thus, it is clear that the organizational ethics aspects of healthcare are important factors for nurses. Theoretically, she locates her work in feminist healthcare ethics, exploring the ethical dimensions of nursing work along with the ethical concerns that arise in home care and research. This alternative action will hopefully have several benefits, such as increasing the likelihood of a more effective treatment plan, maintaining patient trust in the healthcare team, and supporting a professional and collegial doctor-nurse relationship. An effective ethical code for nursing practice must provide guidance on managing ethical problems that arise at the societal level, the organizational level, and the clinical level. Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Advancing the profession through research and policy by attending to informed consent, advocacy, and accountability of practice are examples of other professional areas of practice with potential ethical dilemmas that make the provisions of the Code a relevant nursing resource. The nurses’ voice in social and health policy should be strengthened to add to the unified efforts on behalf of all in the profession. Fields, Bronwyn E.; Whitney, Robin L.; Bell, Janice F. AJN, American Journal â¦ Principles of biomedical ethics, 6th ed. Likewise, Walker (1998) describes morality as essentially interpersonal, existing in the real time and social space of our social roles and practices. Wocial provides several exercises that the reader can use to engage in self-reflection and lists resources to support moral communities. To consider ethical issues, some level of guidance about how to do so should be in place. Medical futility: predicting outcome of intensive care unit patients by nurses and doctors-a prospective comparative study. We would likely have great difficulty living productive lives if we constantly worried about our homes being ransacked or our lives being in danger. The American Nurses Association has guided and supported nursing practice through creation and implementation of a nationally accepted Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. They also found, however, that nurses tended to identify paths of resistance and influence, such as finding strength in numbers and being assertive in order to achieve their goals. The preface was revised to strengthen the purpose of the Code, the ethical framework, and the context. Presidential Commission. Every day, nurses support each other to fulfill their ethical obligations to patients and the public, but in an ever-changing world there are increased challenges. Each suggestion was evaluated using the analysis processes described above, preserving the essential and eliminating the incidental. Regardless, our abilities to live peacefully and productively and to identify our obligations to one another in our own society and across cultures are informed by ethics. Standards. (2014). Table 1 provides a timeline of the most recent Code revision process. American Journal of Nursing, 26(3), 211-215. Through the Centeâ¦ It's a scary feeling knowing you must choose between two bad choices. It is useful here first to consider the history of nursing as it pertains to ethics. The articles on ethical and legal issues are written in a comprehensible style and official documents are analysed in a user-friendly way. Conversely, this may undermine Mr. Logan’s trust in the physician as well as the nurse (Provision 1.2: Relationships with patients). As nurses, we may even face ethical dilemmas within our peer group if we witness a colleague exhibiting unsafe practices. David J. Carter, Mark De Vitis, Erol Dulagil, Depictions of the human person: a multidisciplinary approach to teaching ethics for advanced practice nursing, International Journal of Ethics Education, 10.1007/s40889-019-00083-x, (2019). (ed.) To practice competently and with integrity, today's nurses must have in place several key elements that guide the profession, such as an accreditation process for education, a rigorous system for licensure and certification, and a relevant code of ethics. Ethics in nursing are very pivotal and have a direct relationship with the quality of clinical care and nursing competence (Sayar, Tahmasebi, Azodi, Tamimi, & Jahanpour, 2018). These included the widespread use of social media and resultant threats to privacy; use of emerging technologies throughout healthcare; growing importance of inter-professional collaboration; a stronger and more direct consideration of social justice as a core value; and an inclusion of global health responsibilities of the profession. The nurse wanted me up and walking after the surgery (âPromoting Nursing Studentsâ Ethical Development in the Clinical Setting,â Teaching for Practice, November 2017). Much work was accomplished using conference calls, email, and other electronic platforms (e.g., screen sharing software) over a 4-year period from initial review to publication. Key words: Ethics, code of ethics, nursing, profession. (2009). (2015). In G.L. American Nurses Association. Martha Turner PhD RN-BC is the Assistant Director of the American Nurses Association Center for Ethics and Human Rights (2006-present). Thus it is not surprising that there are healthcare providers still willing to use placebos, including the physician in Mr. Logan’s case (Arnstein, Broglio, Wuhrman & Kean, 2011; Fassler, Meissner, Schneider, & Linde, 2010). The following fictional case, adapted from White and Zibelman (2005) illustrates a bedside nurse’s dilemma that has both clinical, patient-level aspects and organizational aspects. American society for pain management nursing position statement: Pain management in patients with substance use disorders. The utility of the Code. She authored the first ethics textbook for nurses in the United States and set the groundwork for the American Nurses Associationâs Code of Ethics used today. First, prior to this revision, the provisions were simply listed with little, if any, interpretation. Clearly, advocating will involve collaboration with a hesitant physician. Ethics and the healthcare organization. (1976). Filerman, A.E. Similarly, the choice to pursue a career in nursing, medicine, business, law, or other professions involves incorporating the obligations and virtues of that smaller “society.” These obligations and virtues are added to our already assumed obligations as members of the larger society. In addition, it may threaten the collegial relationship between the nurse and physician (Provision 2.3 and 8 address interprofessional collaboration), a relationship that will continue long after Mr. Logan has been discharged. Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses: Development, Interpretation and Application (2nd ed). To practice competently and with integrity, today's nurses must have in place several key elements that guide the profession, such as an accreditation process for education, a rigorous system for certification and licensure, and a relevant code of ethics. The articles on ethical and legal issues are written in a comprehensible style and official documents are analysed in a user-friendly way. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(4): 356-367. More attention, such as the work of Musto, Rodney, and Vanderheide (2015), is now given to how nurses can take action to address the issues that cause this distress. Presidential commission for the study of bioethical issues. A tentative code. American Nurses Association. Retrieved from www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Ethics-Position-Statements, American Nurses Association. The nationally accepted guide is the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements , or The Code, issued by the American Nurses Association . Ulrich, C. M., Taylor, C., Soeken, K., O’Donnell, P., Farrar, A., Danis, M. & Grady, C. (2010).