ovid heroides latin

Cf. Written thoughout in elegant elegiac couplets, “The Heroides” were some of Ovid‘s most popular works among his assumed primary audience of Roman women, as well as being highly influential with many later poets. (ed.) Selections from Ovid's Metamorphoses: Baucis and Philemon/Acis, Galatea, and Polyphemus/Narcissus and Echo/Pentheus (Longman Latin Reader) Ovid $8.79. Recommending parts of his poetic output as suitable reading material to his assumed audience of Roman women, Ovid wrote of his Heroides: "vel tibi composita cantetur Epistola voce: | ignotum hoc aliis ille novavit opus" (Ars Amatoria 3.345–6: "Or let an Epistle be sung out by you in practiced voice: unknown to others, he [sc. Even now, left to the wild beasts, she might live, cruel Theseus. P. OVIDIVS NASO (43 B.C. The paired letters of the Double Heroides are not outlined here: see the relevant section of that article for the double epistles (16–21). The exact dating of the Heroides, as with the overall chronology of the Ovidian corpus, remains a matter of debate. sive Menoetiaden falsis cecidisse sub armis, flebam successu posse carere dolos. Whether this is true or not, the “Heroides” certainly owe much of their heritage to the founders of Latin love elegy – Gallus, Propertius and Tibullus – as evidenced by their metre and their subject matter. [11] Stephen Hinds argues, however, that this list constitutes only a poetic catalogue, in which there was no need for Ovid to have enumerated every individual epistle. The only collection of Heroides attested by O[vid] therefore antedates at least the second edition of the Amores (c. 2 BC), and probably the first (c. 16 BC) ..."[7] On this view, the most probable date of composition for at least the majority of the collection of single Heroides ranges between c. 25 and 16 BC, if indeed their eventual publication predated that of the assumed first edition of the Amores in that latter year. The poems (or letters) are presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology to their heroic lovers who have in … Rosati, G. (1991) "Protesilao, Paride, e l'amante elegiaco: un modello omerico in Ovidio", Vessey, D. W. T. (1976) "Humor and Humanity in Ovid's, Viarre, S. (1987) "Des poèmes d'Homère aux. [8] Regardless of absolute dating, the evidence nonetheless suggests that the single Heroides represent some of Ovid's earliest poetic efforts. (Alas! sanguine Tlepolemus Lyciam tepefecerat hastam; 20 Tlepolemi leto cura novata mea est. Charles Simmons, The Metamorphoses of Ovid, Books XIII and XIV, 13.507 Cross-references to this page (2): P. Ovidius Naso, Art of Love, Remedy of Love, Art of Beauty, Court of Love, History of Love, Amours , A Note on the Translations One passage in the second book of Ovid's Amores (Am.) Heroides – Ovid – Ancient Rome – Classical Literature. A further set of six poems, widely known as the Double Heroides and numbered 16 to 21 in modern scholarly editions, follows these individual letters and presents three separate exchanges of paired epistles: one each from a heroic lover to his absent beloved and from the heroine in return. the introduction), and (2002), Kennedy (2002), and Lingenberg (2003). Pygmalion: and Related Readings. Ovid: Heroides I Introduction and Latin Text, with Greek Translation by Maximus Planudes edited by Arthur Palmer and Duncan F. Kennedy. Barchiesi, A. Acontius writes to Cydippe, claiming that the fever was sent by Diana as a punishment of the breach of the vow Cydippe had made to him in Diana’s temple. Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BCE –17 CE ), born at Sulmo, studied rhetoric and law at Rome. [Translated and reprinted from, "Future Reflexive: Two Modes of Allusion and the. The Heroides (The Heroines), or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), are a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid in Latin elegiac couplets, and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology, in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them. Ovid, Heroides 3. Ovid arrived at his place of exile in the spring of 9 ce. Ovid: The Heroides A complete English translation Home; Download; Heroides I-VII. Ovid claimed to have created an entirely new literary genre of fictional epistolary poems. Information about his biography is drawn primarily from his poetry, especially Tristia 4.10, which gives a lengthy autobiographical account of his life. Famous at first, he offended the emperor Augustus by his Ars Amatoria, and was banished because of this work and some other reason unknown to us, and dwelt in the cold and primitive town of Tomis on the Black Sea. Other studies, eschewing direct engagement with this issue in favour of highlighting the more ingenious elements—and thereby demonstrating the high value—of individual poems in the collection, have essentially subsumed the authenticity debate, implicating it through a tacit equation of high literary quality with Ovidian authorship. For references specifically relating to that subject, please see the relevant bibliography of the Double Heroides. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0068:text=Ep. (1994) "Fantasy, Myth, and Love Letters: Text and Tale in Ovid's, Steinmetz, P. (1987) "Die literarische Form der, Stroh, W. (1991) "Heroides Ovidianae cur epistolas scribant", in G. Papponetti (ed.). Qui modo Nasonis fueramus quinque libelli, Heroides (Heroines) I n this collection of elegiac couplets, Ovid represents letters from famous women in mythology, writing to their husbands and lovers about the things they experienced. Heroides. Ovid’s first work, the Amores (The Loves), had an immediate success and was followed, in rapid succession, by the Epistolae Heroidum, or Heroides (Epistles of the Heroines), the Medicamina faciei (“Cosmetics”; Eng. aut quod Penelopes verbis reddatur Ulixi, This edition is intended to provide students of Latin literature with guidance in the interpretation of these poems. Purser (ed.)] Some critics have argued that the passage in, Hinds (1993) 30 f., a suggestion cited by scholars since almost as a matter of reflex. As an example following these lines, for some time scholars debated over whether this passage from the Amores—corroborating, as it does, only the existence of Her. Briseis to Achilles. Aen. (ei mihi, praeceptis urgeor ipse meis!) 1–2, 4–7, 10–11, and very possibly of 12, 13,[10] and 15—could be cited fairly as evidence for the inauthenticity of at least the letters of Briseis (3), Hermione (8), Deianira (9), and Hypermnestra (14), if not also those of Medea (12), Laodamia (13), and Sappho (15). Ovid - The Heroides: a new complete downloadable English translation. As Peter E. Knox notes, "[t]here is no consensus about the relative chronology of this [sc. Might say, and so too †that woman of Lesbos, beloved of the Aonian lyre.†[6]. Dickinson Latin Workshop: Ovid’s Heroides July 16–20, 2020. Ovid's Heroides by itself deserves four stars, and one off for this translation. [13] On the other hand, some scholars have taken a completely different route, ascribing the whole collection to one[14] or two[15] Ovidian imitators (the catalogue in Am. They are among the few classical depictions of heterosexual love from the female perspective and, although their apparent uniformity of plot has been interpreted as encouraging a tragic female stereotype, each letter gives a unique and unprecedented perspective into its respective story at a crucial point in time. In addition, there are three pairs of double letters (Nos. [3] Arguably some of Ovid's most influential works (see below), one point that has greatly contributed to their mystique—and to the reverberations they have produced within the writings of later generations—is directly attributable to Ovid himself. This is the first intermediate-student edition of a selection from Ovid's Heroides.Heroides VI, lines 1–100 and 127–64, and Heroides X, lines 1–76 and 119–50 are included as Latin text with an accompanying commentary and vocabulary.Focusing on a deliberately limited number of poems, this edition is designed to be manageable for students reading … Ovid's Heroides, a collection of twenty-one epistles in elegiac verse, consists of two groups, the first comprising fourteen poems addressed by heroines of mythology to their absent lovers or husbands. Ovid: Amores I (BCP Latin Texts) (Bk. A few of these lines are blurred by falling tears, tears which are as heavy as my words. Questions of authenticity, however, have often inhibited the literary appreciation of these poems. They may not have the great emotional range or the often sharp political irony of Ovid‘s “Metamorphoses”, but they do have keen portraiture and a matchless rhetorical virtuosity. The full extent of Ovid's originality in this matter has been a point of scholarly contention: E. J. Kenney, for instance, notes that "novavit is ambiguous: either 'invented' or 'renewed', cunningly obscuring without explicitly disclaiming O[vid]'s debt to Propertius' Arethusa (4.3) for the original idea. Tarrant, R. J. XVI – XXI) where the heroic lovers address their loves and receive their replies. The Heroides (The Heroines),[1] or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid in Latin elegiac couplets and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them. That which Paris and Macareus, and that also which oh-so-ungrateful Jason, Perhaps the most successful of these were the Quatre Epistres d'Ovide (c. 1500) by André de La Vigne [fr], a friend and colleague of Saint-Gelais. scribimus et lacrimas, Phylli relicta, tuas, (1998) "Echtheitskritik: Ovidian and Non-Ovidian, Heinze, T. (1991–93) "The Authenticity of Ovid, Palmer, A. [2] Discussion of these issues has been a focus, even if tangentially, of many treatments of the Heroides in recent memory. The Heroides is a collection of 21 poems in elegiac couplets. also, on. Letter XVIII: Leander to Hero: Leander, who lives across the Hellespont Sea from his illicit lover Hero and regularly swims across to meet her, complains that a storm is preventing him from joining her, but vows to brave even the bad storm rather than be deprived of her company for much longer. Latin version with word-by-word translation (Perseus Project): Passer, deliciae meae puellae (Catullus 2), Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus (Catullus 5), Miser Catulle, desinas ineptire (Catullus 8), http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0085:poem=1. (1998) Heroides I w/ Notes & Comm. the arguments of, e.g. This your Penelope sends to you, too-slow Ulysses; I, your hostess, Demophoon—I, your Phyllis of Rhodope—. Portrait of Penelope, extracted from Ovid’s Heroides , c. 1500 in particular the recent dissertations-turned-published-monographs of Lindheim (2003), Spentzou (2003), and Fulkerson (2005). has been adduced especially often in this context: quod licet, aut artes teneri profitemur Amoris [completed by L.C. Holzberg, N. (1997) "Playing with his Life: Ovid's 'Autobiographical' References", This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 14:42. The single Heroides are written from the viewpoints of the following heroines (and heroes). The Heroides (The Heroines), or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid in Latin elegiac couplets and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them. Rahn, H. (1963) "Ovids elegische Epistel", Smith, R. A. trans. BRISEIS TO ACHILLES. scribimus et lacrimas, Phylli relicta, tuas. [12] This assertion has been widely persuasive, and the tendency amongst scholarly readings of the later 1990s and following has been towards careful and insightful literary explication of individual letters, either proceeding under the assumption of, or with an eye towards proving, Ovidian authorship. ‘vir’, ‘virago’, ‘virgo’, ‘virtus’, ‘vis’. with an English translation) and Goold, G. P. (2nd edition revised) (1986), Roebuck, L. T. Author: Paul Murgatroyd Publisher: Taylor & Francis ISBN: 1351758942 Size: 46.47 MB Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi View: 812 Get Books This volume offers up-to-date translations of all 21 epistles of Ovid’s Heroides. quod Paris et Macareus et quod male gratus Iason While this situation is far from ideal, we hope it will allow those who could not … The Loeb Classical Library presents the Heroides with Amores in Ovid I. Penguin Books first published Harold Isbell's translation in 1990. Hypsipyle of Lemnos, born of the people of Bacchus. I Penelope to Ulysses II Phyllis to Demophoon III Briseis to Achilles IV Phaedra to Hippolytus V Oenone to Paris VI Hypsipyle to Jason VII Dido to Aeneas Heroides VIII-XV. The words you read come from stolen Briseis, an alien who has learned some Greek. With Ovid's word as the only viable evidence on the matter, the existence of a second edition of the Amores is widely regarded as potentially questionable (cf. It just seems so hokey, and I feel like the need to work everything so it rhymes warps the translation a lot. The Nymph sends words you ordered her to write. While this situation is far from ideal, we hope it will allow those who could not normally travel to Carlisle to participate. And what pitiable Dido, holding now the blade unsheathed, Or write what's rendered in the words of Penelope to her Ulysses, Written thoughout in elegant elegiac couplets. Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BCE 17 CE), born at Sulmo, studied rhetoric and law at Rome. Other sources include Seneca the Elder and Quintilian. I'm beset by my own teachings!) Later he did considerable public service there, and otherwise devoted himself to poetry and to society. 3.345–6 and Epistulae ex Ponto 4.16.13–14, would then be interpolations introduced to establish the imitations as authentic Ovid). The Heroides were long held in low esteem by literary scholars[2] but, like other works by Ovid, were re-evaluated more positively in the late 20th century. Dickinson Latin Workshop: Ovid’s Heroides July 16–20, 2020 The Dickinson Summer Latin Workshop will move online this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. Verg. Acontius writes to Cydippe, claiming that the fever was sent by Diana as a punishment of the breach of the vow Cydippe had made to him in Diana’s temple.Letter XXI: Cydippe to Acontius: In response, Cydippe claims that Acontius had ensnared her by artifice, although she gradually softens to a compliance and ends with a wish that their marriage may be consummated without delay. The quotations highlighted are the opening couplets of each poem, by which each would have been identified in medieval manuscripts of the collection: The Heroides were popularized by the Loire valley poet Baudri of Bourgueil in the late eleventh century, and Héloïse used them as models in her famous letters to Peter Abelard. Hippolytique parens Hippolytusque legant, And your tearful tale too, forsaken Phyllis—, And Hippolytus's sire, and Hippolytus himself may read—, Might say, and so too †that woman of Lesbos, beloved of the Aonian lyre.†, The reader is to understand that the letters, Knox (1995) 6. Holzberg [1997]). Letter XXI: Cydippe to Acontius: In response, Cydippe claims that Acontius had ensnared her by artifice, although she gradually softens to a compliance and ends with a wish that their marriage may be consummated without delay. The poems (or letters) are presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected or abandoned them.   at levior demptis poena duobus erit, We who were (not so long ago) the five little books of Naso In his solitude and depression, Ovid turned again to poetry, now of a more personal and introspective sort. Accipe, Dardanide, moriturae carmen Elissae; quae legis a nobis ultima verba legi. "[4] In spite of various interpretations of Propertius 4.3, consensus nevertheless concedes to Ovid the lion's share of the credit in the thorough exploration of what was then a highly innovative poetic form. [9] Joseph Farrell identifies three distinct issues of importance to the collection in this regard: (1) individual interpolations within single poems, (2) the authorship of entire poems by a possible Ovidian impersonator, and (3) the relation of the Double Heroides to the singles, coupled with the authenticity of that secondary collection. 2.18, as well as Ars am. (1999) "First Among Women: Ovid, and the Traditions of ‘Exemplary' Catalogue", in, Kennedy, D. F. (1984) "The Epistolary Mode and the First of Ovid's. Letter XX: Acontius to Cydippe: Cydippe, a lady of high rank and beauty from the isle of Delos, has solemnly sworn to marry the young, poor Acontius, but has been promised in the meantime by her father to someone else, only avoiding that marriage thus far due to a fever. Later translations and creative responses to the Heroides include Jean Lemaire de Belges's Premiere Epître de l'Amant vert (1505), Fausto Andrelini's verse epistles (1509–1511; written in the name of Anne de Bretagne), Michel d'Amboise's [fr] Contrepistres d'Ovide (1546), and Juan Rodríguez de la Cámara's Bursario, a partial translation of the Heroides. [18] A translation, Les Vingt et Une Epistres d'Ovide, was made of this work at the end of the 15th century by the French poet Octavien de Saint-Gelais, who later became Bishop of Angoulême. She, who sends this, wishes loving greetings to go to whom it's sent: Hypermestra sends this letter to her one cousin of many, When these letters, from my eager hand, are examined, Showerman, G. (ed. Knox notes that "[t]his passage ... provides the only external evidence for the date of composition of the Heroides listed here. CANACE TO MACAREUS [1] If aught of what I write is yet blotted deep and escapes your eye, ‘twill be because the little roll has been stained by its mistress’ blood. (ed.) Ovid $14.19 - $33.11. Orpheus in the Underworld (Penguin 60s) Books and high society were lacking; little Latin was spoken; and the climate was severe. About Selections from Ovid Heroides. Letter XVI: Paris to Helen: The Trojan prince Paris, deeply enamoured of the beautiful Helen of Sparta, informs her of his passion and insinuates himself into her good graces, eventually resorting to promises that he will make her his wife if she will flee with him to Troy.Letter XVII: Helen to Paris: In response, Helen at first rejects Paris’ proposals with a counterfeit modesty, before gradually opening herself more plainly and ultimately showing herself quite willing to comply with his scheme.Letter XVIII: Leander to Hero: Leander, who lives across the Hellespont Sea from his illicit lover Hero and regularly swims across to meet her, complains that a storm is preventing him from joining her, but vows to brave even the bad storm rather than be deprived of her company for much longer.Letter XIX: Hero to Leander: In response, Hero reiterates the constancy of her love for Leander, but counsels him not to venture out until the sea is calm.Letter XX: Acontius to Cydippe: Cydippe, a lady of high rank and beauty from the isle of Delos, has solemnly sworn to marry the young, poor Acontius, but has been promised in the meantime by her father to someone else, only avoiding that marriage thus far due to a fever. e.g. (1898). An Aeolid, who has no health herself, sends it to an Aeolid. Sed bene consuluit casto deus aequus amori. (Classical Association of New England), Arena, A. What you're reading—this letter came from your ravished Briseis, What well-being she herself will lack unless you give it her. For the paradoxical paronomastical combination uir/uirgo, cf. Ovid $4.19 - $9.79. Ovid survives in his poetry (his tragedy Medea is lost), the most important of which, in probable order of composition, are: Amores (c. 20 b.c.e. All notes refer to works listed in the Bibliography, below. dicat et †Aoniae Lesbis amata lyrae.†, I do what I may—either profess the arts of tender love These epistolary poems are written in Latin elegiac couplets (demonstrated here and in depth here), which is a type of meter used in poetry. Since the Amores may well be among the first Latin poems a student encounters, it may be helpful to provide a brief introduction to the rules of Latin prosody (the quantity of individual syllables) and to the reading aloud of elegiac couplets. Books XVI to XXI “Heroides” (“The Heroines”), also known as “Epistulae Heroidum” (“Letters of Heroines”) or simply “Epistulae”, is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems (poems in the form of letters) by the Roman lyric poet Ovid, published between 5 BCE and 8 CE. This trend is visible especially in the most recent monographs on the Heroides. He also provides (p. 6, n. 9) a cautionary note, with references, on the use of modern terminology such as, Like many other aspects of Ovidian studies, what is known about the publication of multiple editions of the. (1981) "The Authenticity of the Letter of Sappho to Phaon". Dido Aeneae.   Are now three; their author preferred his work this way over that. The Heroides consist of 15 poems that have mythological females address their heroic lovers. Prosody. The Dickinson Summer Latin Workshop will move online this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. Though even now you may take little pleasure in reading us, versa est in cineres sospite Troia viro. Isbell's translation uses unrhymed couplets that generally alternate between eleven and nine syllables. (2003) "Chain(ed) Mail: Hypermestra and the Dual Readership of. Letter XIII: Laodamia to Protesilaus: Laodamia, wife of the Greek general Protesilaus, endeavours to dissuade him from engaging in the Trojan War and particularly warns him against being the first Greek to set foot on Trojan ground lest he suffer the prophecies of an oracle. (1995) Review of Hintermeier (1993), "Continuities", 9–28. Scorned Medea, the helpless exile, speaks to her recent husband. Famous at first, he offended the emperor Augustus by his Ars Amatoria, and was banished because of this work and some other reason unknown to us, and dwelt in the cold and primitive town of Tomis on the Black Sea. A translation in rhymed couplets by Daryl Hine appeared in 1991. For fuller discussion see D. S. Raven, Latin Metre: an Introduction (Cambridge, 1965). Dardanian, receive this song of dying Elissa: Hermione speaks to one lately her cousin and husband, A letter, that shares her feelings, sent to Alcides. [5] Exact dating is hindered not only by a lack of evidence, but by the fact that much of what is known at all comes from Ovid's own poetry. Yvonne LeBlanc, "Queen Anne in the Lonely, Tear-Soaked Bed of Penelope: Rewriting the, "Review of: Ovid's Heroides: Select Epistles", "15 Heroines: The Labyrinth review – defiant women rise up from the myths | Theatre | The Guardian", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heroides&oldid=988491981, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. See esp. Kennedy (1984) and Hinds (1999). Later he did considerable public service there, and otherwise devoted himself to poetry and to society. Mainly because I just really dislike when Latin poetry gets translated into rhyming verse. Casali, S. (1992) "Enone, Apollo pastore, e l'amore immedicabile: giochi ovidiani su di un topos elegiaco", ___. A further set of six poems, widely known as the Double Heroidesand numbered 16 to 21 in modern scholarly editions, follows these individual letters and prese… Letter I: Penelope to Ulysses: Penelope, wife of Ulysses (the Greek hero of the Trojan War, known as Odysseus in Greek), ignorant of the cause of her husband’s absence after the fall of Troy and solicitous for his return, chides him for his long stay, and urges him to come home to his wife and family, as he now has no reasonable excuse for his absence.Letter II: Phyllis to Demophoon: Phyllis, the daughter of Lycurgus of Thrace, complains to Demophoon, the son of King Theseus of Athens (whom she had met after his return from the Trojan War) of his breach of faith in not returning to marry her as he had promised, threatening to bring a violent death on herself if he continues to neglect her.Letter III: Briseis to Achilles: Briseis (who had been carried off by the Greek hero Achilles during the Trojan War, but then stolen away by the jealous Agamemnon) blames Achilles for his over-violent reaction and entreats him to accept Agamemnon’s peace offers and to take up arms against the Trojans again.Letter IV: Phaedra to Hippolytus: Theseus’ wife Phaedra confesses her love to Hippolytus (Theseus’ son by the Amazon Hyppolita) in Theseus’ absence, and tries to inspire him with a mutual tenderness, despite their near relationship.Letter V: Oenone to Paris: The nymph Oenone writes to Paris (son of Priam and Hecuba and a prince of Troy, although brought up secretly by shepherds), complaining that he has unfairly abandoned her, and warning him against the wiles of the beautiful but fickle Helen.Letter VI: Hypsipyle to Jason: Hypsipyle, queen of the isle of Lemnos, complains that Jason had abandoned her, pregnant, during his quest for the Golden Fleece, and warns him against his new mistress, the enchantress Medea.Letter VII: Dido to Aeneas: Queen Dido of Carthage, who has been seized with a violent passion for Aeneas (the Greek hero of the Trojan War), tries to divert him from his intention to leave Carthage in order to pursue his destiny in Italy, and threatens to put an end to her own life if he should refuse her.Letter VIII: Hermione to Orestes: Hermione, promised by her father Menelaus to Achilles’ son Pyrrhus, admonishes her true love Orestes, to whom she was previously betrothed, advising him that she might easily be recovered from the hands of Pyrrhus.Letter IX: Deianeira to Hercules: Deianeira upbraids her unfaithful husband Hercules for his unmanly weakness in pursuing Iole, and tries to awaken in him a sense of his past glory, but, belatedly hearing of the fatal effects of the poisoned shirt she had sent him in her anger, she exclaims against her own rashness and threatens to end her own life.Letter X: Ariadne to Theseus: Ariadne, who had fled with Theseus after the slaying of the Minotaur, accuses him of perfidy and inhumanity after he left her on the isle of Naxos in preference for her sister, Phaedra, and tries to move him to compassion by a mournful representation of her misery.Letter XI: Canace to Macareus: Canace, daughter of Aeolus (the god of the winds) pathetically represents her case to her lover and brother Macareus, whose son she had borne, inveighing against her father’s cruel command that she take her own life as punishment for her immorality.Letter XII: Medea to Jason: The enchantress Medea, who aided Jason in his quest for the Golden Fleece and fled with him, charges him with ingratitude and perfidy after he transfers his love to Creusa of Corinth, and threatens a speedy revenge unless he restores her to her former place in his affections.Letter XIII: Laodamia to Protesilaus: Laodamia, wife of the Greek general Protesilaus, endeavours to dissuade him from engaging in the Trojan War and particularly warns him against being the first Greek to set foot on Trojan ground lest he suffer the prophecies of an oracle.Letter XIV: Hypermestra to Lynceus: Hypermnestra, one of the fifty daughters of Danaus (and the only one who had spared her husband Lynceus from Danaus’ treachery), advises her husband to flee back to his father, Aegyptus, and begs him to come to her assistance before Danaus has her killed for her disobedience.Letter XV: Sappho to Phaon: The Greek poet Sappho, resolved to throw herself off a cliff when her lover Phaon abandons her, expresses her distress and misery and tries to soothe him to softness and a mutual feeling. Ovid is today best known for his grand epic, Metamorphoses, and elegiac works like the Ars Amatoria and Heroides.

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